japanese kanji for father

What Is The Japanese Kanji For Father?

05 June 2024Shopify API

The Japanese kanji for father is 父. Read on to learn the writing and pronunciation of the Japanese kanji for father. 

The Japanese writing system is rich and intricate, consisting of three main scripts: Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji. 

Among these, Kanji holds a special significance as it is derived from Chinese characters and serves as the logographic representation of various words, ideas, and concepts. 

In this article, we explore the profound Kanji character that represents one of the most important figures in any family: the father.

Japanese Kanji for Father is 父

The Kanji character for "father" in Japanese is pronounced as "chichi" or "otōsan." It is written as 父 and is one of the fundamental and commonly used characters in the Japanese language.

Character Components of 父

To understand the structure and meaning of 父, let's break it down into its constituent parts:

  • 亠 (Kanmuri)

The first component of the character 父 is 亠, which is called "kanmuri" in Japanese. In English, it is often referred to as "lid" or "covering." 

The kanmuri radical appears at the top of many Kanji characters and can be likened to a lid placed over the rest of the character.

It is an essential part of the character's visual structure and plays a significant role in its overall meaning.

In terms of symbolism, the kanmuri radical represents the topmost part of an object, akin to a cover or a roof. It is associated with ideas of protection, shelter, and containment. 

In the case of the Kanji 父, the kanmuri radical may be interpreted as the protective presence of a father, who acts as a figurative "lid" over his family, providing them with a sense of security and support.

  • 火 (Hi)

The second component of the character 父 is 火, pronounced "hi," which means "fire" in Japanese. The radical depicts the element of fire and is used in various Kanji characters related to heat, flame, and energy.

In terms of symbolism, fire carries multiple connotations, including strength, energy, passion, and authority. 

In the context of the Kanji 父, the 火 radical represents the strong and authoritative role a father traditionally holds within the family. It signifies the father's presence as a source of warmth, protection, and leadership for his loved ones.

  • 丶 (Ten-ten)

The third component is 丶, called "ten-ten" in Japanese. It is a small dot-like diacritical mark used in the Japanese writing system. When placed next to Hiragana or Katakana characters, it can modify their pronunciation.

In the Kanji 父, the ten-ten doesn't alter the pronunciation, but its purpose in this character is to emphasize the significance of both the kanmuri (亠) and the 火 radical (火).

The ten-ten acts as a visual accent, highlighting the combination of the "lid" and "fire" components to create a character representing the father.

In summary, the character components of 父 combine to create a visually and symbolically powerful representation of "father."

The kanmuri (亠) reinforces the protective nature of the father's role, acting as a cover over the family, while the 火 radical symbolizes the father's strength, passion, and authority.

Together, they create a harmonious character that encapsulates the profound cultural importance of fatherhood in Japanese society.

Writing and Pronunciation OF 父

The Kanji 父 is pronounced as "chichi" or "otōsan" in Japanese. When writing the character, it is essential to follow the correct stroke order to maintain its integrity and aesthetic appeal. 

Beginners in learning Kanji often practice writing this character as part of their early education.


The Kanji 父 is written with precise strokes following a specific stroke order. Proper stroke order is essential in Japanese calligraphy and writing, as it ensures the character's correct form and maintains its aesthetic balance.

The character 父 is composed of three distinct components:

  • The top component is 亠 (kanmuri), which resembles a small "lid" or "cover" at the top of the character.
  • The middle component is 火 (hi), representing the "fire" radical.
  • The bottom component is 丶 (ten-ten), a small dot-like diacritical mark.

To write the Kanji 父, follow this stroke order:

  • Begin by writing the kanmuri (亠) component, starting from the upper left corner with a horizontal stroke from left to right.
  • Next, write the "fire" radical (火) with two diagonal strokes that slant down and to the right.
  • Finally, add the ten-ten (丶) with a small dot placed at the lower right corner of the "fire" radical.

It is essential to maintain the proportions and balance of the character while writing it, especially when practicing Japanese calligraphy.


The pronunciation of the Kanji 父 can be expressed in two ways in the Japanese language:

  • "Chichi" (ちち)

This is the kun'yomi reading of the Kanji 父, representing the native Japanese pronunciation. It is commonly used in everyday speech, particularly in informal or familial settings.

  • "Otōsan" (おとうさん)

This is the on'yomi reading of the Kanji 父, representing the Chinese-derived pronunciation. On'yomi readings are often used when the Kanji appears in compound words or formal contexts.

Both "chichi" and "otōsan" refer to the same concept of "father" and are widely understood by Japanese speakers. The choice of pronunciation depends on the context in which the Kanji is used, with "chichi" being more intimate and affectionate, while "otōsan" is slightly more formal.

Meaning and Symbolism of 父

With its components analyzed, we can derive the meaning and symbolism behind the Kanji 父.

At its core, the character represents a dignified figure, standing tall like a lid over the element of fire. 

The element of fire is often associated with strength, passion, and authority, symbolizing the qualities traditionally attributed to a father figure in Japanese culture. 

The character 父 is a testament to the importance and reverence that fathers hold in the family structure.

  • Meaning:

At its core, the Kanji 父 represents the concept of "father" in the Japanese language. It is a logographic character, meaning it carries meaning on its own, distinct from phonetic characters like Hiragana or Katakana, which represent syllables.

When Japanese speakers see the Kanji 父, they immediately recognize it as the symbol for "father."

  • Symbolism:

The symbolism behind the Kanji 父 is multi-faceted and deeply rooted in Japanese culture and traditional family values. 

Each component of the character contributes to its symbolic significance:

  • Kanmuri (亠 - Lid)

The kanmuri radical at the top of the character symbolizes the topmost part of an object, often seen as a "lid" or "cover." In the context of 父, the kanmuri can be interpreted as the protective presence of a father as the head of the household. 

Just as a lid shields and safeguards what lies beneath it, a father is seen as the protector and provider for his family. He plays a vital role in ensuring the family's well-being and security.

  • Hi (火 - Fire)

The 火 radical represents the element of fire, which carries various symbolic meanings. Fire is associated with strength, energy, and passion. 

In the context of 父, the 火 radical symbolizes the father's inner strength, authority, and dynamic presence within the family.

Like a warm and comforting fire, a father provides his family with love, guidance, and support, radiating a sense of security and stability.

  • Ten-ten (丶 - Diacritical Mark)

Though small, the ten-ten plays a subtle yet important role in the Kanji 父. It accentuates the combination of the kanmuri and the 火 radical, underscoring their significance in representing the concept of "father." 

The ten-ten adds emphasis to the character, highlighting the importance of the role a father plays in Japanese society and family life.

Cultural Importance of 父

In Japanese culture, the father has historically played a vital role as the head of the household and the primary provider for the family.

He embodies virtues like discipline, guidance, and protection, shaping the values and character of his children.

The character 父 carries deep cultural significance and is often used in various family-related contexts, including Father's Day celebrations and expressing gratitude and respect towards fathers.

Let's delve deeper into the cultural importance of fathers and the role they play in Japanese society:

  • Patriarchy and Authority

Historically, Japan has been a patriarchal society where the father assumes the role of the family's primary authority figure. 

As the head of the household, he is responsible for making important decisions that impact the family, both financially and emotionally.

His decisions are often guided by the well-being and prosperity of his family members.

  • Provider and Protector

One of the fundamental roles of the father is that of a provider. He is expected to work diligently to support his family financially, ensuring their basic needs are met. 

This role has evolved over time, and today, many Japanese fathers also actively participate in childcare and household responsibilities, contributing to a more equitable family dynamic.

  • Discipline and Moral Guidance

Fathers are seen as moral guides for their children. They are responsible for instilling discipline, values, and ethics in their offspring.

The father's guidance plays a crucial role in shaping the character and behavior of the children, preparing them to become responsible members of society.

The concept of filial piety, known as "oyakoko" in Japanese, is deeply rooted in Confucian principles and is highly regarded in Japanese culture. 

Filial piety emphasizes the respect, care, and gratitude that children should show toward their parents, particularly their fathers. This respect for fathers extends beyond their lifetime, with ancestral veneration being an essential aspect of Japanese culture.

  • Father's Day Celebrations:

Father's Day, known as "Chichi no Hi" in Japan, is a special occasion to honor and express gratitude to fathers for their contributions and sacrifices for the family. It is celebrated on the third Sunday of June, similar to many other countries around the world.

On Father's Day, children may give gifts, cards, or letters featuring the Kanji 父 (father) to express their love and appreciation. Families may also spend quality time together, engaging in activities that fathers enjoy.

  • Changing Roles:

As Japan continues to modernize and embrace more progressive values, the traditional roles of fathers are also evolving. 

Many fathers today actively participate in raising their children and take on household responsibilities, promoting a more equal partnership with their spouses. 

This shift reflects a broader social change in attitudes toward gender roles and family dynamics.


The Japanese Kanji for "father" - 父 - is not just a mere symbol but a representation of the respect, love, and admiration that fathers receive in Japanese society. 

The combination of the lid, symbolizing dignity, and the element of fire, symbolizing strength, portrays the significant role a father plays in a family. 

This character is a beautiful testament to the profound cultural importance of fatherhood in Japan and serves as a reminder of the bond shared between fathers and their children.

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